ye shastra-vidhim utsrjya yajante shraddhayanvitah
tesham nistha tu ka Krishna sattvam aho rajas tamah
O Krishna! Those who discard the ordinances of the scriptures and perform sacrifice with faith, what is their position? Is it sattvic (mode of goodness), rajasic (mode of passion) or tasmasic (mode of sacrifice)?
tri-vidha bhavati shraddha dehinam sa svabhava-ja
sattviki rajasi caiva tamasi ceti tam shrinu
Lord Krishna said:
From the nature of the human beings are the three forms of faith -- the sattvika (good), the rajasika (passionate) and the tamasika (ignorant) are born. Now you hear about this.
sattvanurupa sarvasya shraddha bhavati bharata
shraddha-mayo ’yam purusho yo yac-chraddhah sa eva sah
O Son of Bharata! The faith of everyone is according to his inner sense. This living being is the embodiment of faith. Whatever the man’s faith, he is like that.
yajante sattvika devan yaksha-rakshamsi rajasah
pretan bhuta-ganams canye yajante tamasa janah
Satvikka (Good) Men worship the demigods; Rajasika (Passionate) people worship the demons and the Tamasika (Ignorant) worship the ghosts and spirits.
ashastra-vihitam ghoram tapyante ye tapo janah
karsayantah sarira-stham bhuta-gramam acetasah
mam caivantah sarira-stham tan viddhy asura-niscayan
Those men who perform severe austerities not illustrated in the scriptures, due to hypocrisy and egoism and are driven by lust and mental affectation; those ignorant people hurt the living parts in their body and Me dwelling within them. Certainly know these men as demons.
aharas tv api sarvasya tri-vidho bhavati priyah
yajnas tapas tatha danam tesham bhedam imam shrinu
All people also have three types of favorite foods. The same is for sacrifice, austerity and charity. Now hear the secret of these from Me.
rasyah snigdhah sthira hrdya aharah sattvika-priyah
The foods that enhance age, power, strength, health, happiness and cheerfulness, that are juicy, oily, nourishing and pleasing to the heart are the foods dearer to those in the mode of goodness.
ahara rajasasyesta duhkha-sokamaya-pradah
The foods that are too bitter, too sour, too salty, very hot, pungent, very dry and burning are the foods that are dearer to those in the mode of passion. These foods induce pain, grief and disease.
yata-yamam gata-rasam puti paryusitam ca yat
ucchistam api camedhyam bhojanam tamasa-priyam
Foods kept for a long time after preparing, very cold, flavorless, putrid, stale, food that is left off after eating (defiled by others), and is impure are the foods that are dearer to those in the mode of darkness.
aphalakanksibhir yajno vidhi-disto ya ijyate
yastavyam eveti manah samadhaya sa sattvikah
Sacrifice performed as per the regulation of the scriptures, by those, who don’t desire the rewards of the sacrifice and with resolute mind consider the performance of the sacrifice as their duty, is of the mode of goodness.
abhisandhaya tu phalam dambhartham api caiva yat
ijyate bharata-srestha tam yajnam viddhi rajasam
But O best of Bharatas! The sacrifice that is performed with expectation of reward or for the sake of flaunt, know it to be in the mode of passion.
vidhi-hinam asrstannam mantra-hinam adaksinam
shraddha-virahitam yajnam tamasam paricakshate
Sacrifice not performed as per the regulation of the scriptures, where there is no distribution of food (anna), which is performed without the chanting of the Vedic hymns, where no donation is given to the priest and is without any faith, is in the mode of ignorance.
deva-dvija-guru-prajna- pujanam shaucam arjavam
brahmacaryam ahimsa ca sariram tapa ucyate
Worship of the Deity, God, Brahman, teacher and the wise, with purity, simplicity, celibacy, and non-violence is said to be the penance of the body.
anudvega-karam vakyam satyam priya-hitam ca yat
svadhyayabhyasanam caiva van-mayam tapa ucyate
The words that do not perplex the mind, are truthful, pleasant, and beneficial for others and in the same way, the continuous and the regular study of the Vedas, are said to be the penance of speech.
manah-prasadah saumyatvam maunam atma-vinigrahah
bhava-samsuddhir ity etat tapo manasam ucyate
Happiness of mind, gentleness, taciturnity, self control and purity of one’s thoughts are the penance of the mind.
shraddhaya paraya taptam tapas tat tri-vidham naraih
aphalakanksibhir yuktaih sattvikam paricakshate
The threefold penance that is performed with maximal faith by a person united with Yoga and having no desire for the rewards is called sattvika (mode of goodness).
satkara-mana-pujarthamb tapo dambhena caiva yat
kriyate tad iha proktam rajasam calam adhruvam
The penance that is performed to gain respect, veneration, and prestige and for the sake of flaunt and out of arrogance and is said to be the unstable rajasa (mode of passion).
mudha-grahenatmano yat pidaya kriyate tapah
parasyotsadanartham va tat tamasam udahrtam
The penance that is performed with foolish willfulness, with self-torture or with an intension to extirpate or kill others, is said to be tamasika (Mode of ignorance).
datavyam iti yad danam diyate ’nupakarine
dese kale ca patre ca tad danam sattvikam smrtam
The charity made with a feeling that it should be given, which is given to the one from whom we didn’t derived any benefit in the past, which is given at a proper place and time, and to a worthy person, is said to be in sattvika (Mode of goodness).
yat tu pratyupakarartham phalam uddisya va punah
diyate ca pariklistam tad danam rajasam smrtam
But the charity that is made to recompense (indemnify) some one’s previous efforts with an expectation of some return or with a desire for fruitful results, or in a grudging disposition, is said to be in rajasika (Mode of passion).
adesa-kale yad danam apatrebhyas ca diyate
asat-kritam avajnatam tat tamasam udahrtam
Charity that is made without considering the place and the time, which is given to the unworthy persons without respect and courtesy is said to be in tamasika (Mode of ignorance)
om tat sad iti nirdeso brahmanas tri-vidhah smrtah
brahmanas tena vedas ca yajnas ca vihitah pura
“Om” “Tat” “Sat” is three eternal types of representation (i.e. Description, Narration and Reference) of the Brahma (Supreme). In ancient times, they ordained the Brahamans, the Vedic scriptures and the performance of sacrifice.
tasmad om ity udahrtya yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah
pravartante vidhanoktah satatam brahma-vadinam
Therefore, before starting the performances of sacrifice, charity and penance as mentioned in the scriptures, the expounders of the Vedas always begins with “Om”.
tad ity anabhisandhaya phalam yajna-tapah-kriyah
dana-kriyas ca vividhah kriyante moksha-kanksibhih
Starting by saying “Tat” and then performing sacrifice, penance, rituals and various types of charity without the desires of the rewards of actions; such actions are performed by the seekers of salvation.
sad-bhave sadhu-bhave ca sad ity etat prayujyate
prasaste karmani tatha sac-chabdah partha yujyate
O Partha! “Sat” is a word that is used for the Best of the Ultimate Truth (Supreme Devotional existence). Also the word “Sat” is used in the best auspicious activities.
yajne tapasi dane ca sthitih sad iti cocyate
karma caiva tad-arthiyam sad ity evabhidhiyate
The steadiness in sacrifice, penance and charity is also called “Sat”. And in the same way, any action with the aim to be surrender unto Supreme is also called “Sat”.
ashraddhaya hutam dattam tapas taptam kritam ca yat
asad ity ucyate partha na ca tat pretya no iha
O Partha! Any oblation, charity, penance, and actions if performed with disbelief in God is called “Asat” (non-existent and unholy). That performance (of oblation, charity, penance) is neither helpful in this world nor in the next.